If a patient has symptoms of a chondrosarcoma, the doctor may need to perform a physical examination based on the symptoms described by the patient. If the patient has a firm, mass attached to the underlying bone with pain or tenderness, this may be an indication to suspect Chondrosarcoma. Recent noticeable growth of a lump, pain and swelling are often the most common complaint. Sometimes, however, there is no obvious evidence of pain and the diagnosis can be confused. There is usually no swelling in any adjacent joint, and range of motion is normal unless tumor has grown large enough to interfere. Fracture of the involved bone is rare. However, in some patients this is the first indication that chondrosarcoma may be present. Systemic symptoms can be associated with the size and location of the tumor. For example, pelvic tumor can present with sciatica, numbness or tingling, extra bladder pressure, or bowel problems. Tumor located in the rib cage can cause pressure upon the lungs, heart, liver or stomach.
In order to determine the diagnosis properly, the doctor may order x-rays and other tests such as a CAT scan, MRI or bone scan. One of these tests, alone, is not enough to determine the diagnosis. So, a combination of these tests helps to reveal the size and characteristics of the tumor and adjacent tissue.
The Radiologist may detect changes consistent with Chondrosarcoma which is most often present on x-ray film as ill-defined lesions with a moderate-sized to large soft tissue component and often demonstrating calcified cartilage. Cat Scan, MRI, Bone Scan, and Ultrasound will give further clarification, and definition of the tumor, and/or in order to determine if other organs are involved.
What do Radiologists look for in a bone scan?
(paraphrased from http://gamma.wustl.edu/bs087te143.html)
"Benign Osteochondroma (exostosis) may show normal to dramatically increased bone uptake. Osteochondroma (benign bone tumor) is relatively uncommon in the spine (1-4% occur in the spine and account for 4% of solitary primary spine bone tumors).
Normal to mild uptake in an exostosis generally excludes malignancy. However, marked uptake is not specific for malignant degeneration. More intense uptake is seen in growing children. Fracture, of course, results in intense uptake. Thus, the role of bone scan in exostosis or multiple hereditary exostosis is questionable.
Thin-slice CT may provide the diagnosis if marrow and cortical continuity can be demonstrated. MRI will show the characteristic cartilaginous cap (intermediate on T1- and high on T2-weighted images). If this cap is greater than 1 to 2 cm in thickness, concern must be raised of chondrosarcoma.
Chondrosarcoma, the second most common malignant spinal primary bone tumor, is a destructive, lytic tumor with a chondroid matrix consisting of "rings and arcs" radiographically. Cortical destruction is always present (excluded by CT in this case). A soft tissue component is common. In bone scan, these produce patchy or homogeneous increased uptake."
According to an article entitled:
Enchondroma and Chondrosarcoma
By Flemming DJ, Murphey MD
"The judicious use of computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and nuclear medicine in conjunction with appropriate clinical data allows the radiologist to establish the correct diagnosis of benign or malignant medullary chondroid lesion in the majority of cases."
There are no blood tests available at this time useful for diagnosing Chondrosarcoma. Blood tests will eliminate the possibility of other kinds of bone cancer.
Once sufficient studies have been done the doctor may also cut out a small piece of tissue and have a pathologist look at it under the microscope to see, if there are any cancer cells. This is called a biopsy.
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